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This issue: The Guide to Knives

Previous issue: The Seasonality of Meat
Upcoming issues:  Olive Oil, Bread, Spices, and more

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Forged vs. Stamped; Carbon Steel vs. Stainless Steel; “German-style” vs. “French-style” vs. “Japanese-style”; light vs. heavy; full tang vs. partial tang; bolster vs. bolsterless; and the list goes on of descriptors used in the knife industry. In this edition of Live to Eat, we will breakdown the anatomy of a knife (yes, we butcher’s are always breaking down anatomies) with the goal of giving you a better understanding of your own knives, or possibly knives you will purchase in the future (after all, Christmas is approaching).


In the last two years, we have gathered quite a collection of knives for sale at The Healthy Butcher and after much research and testing, have landed on the following brands (in order of price): Victorinox, K-Sabatier, Grohmann, MAC, GLOBAL, Wusthof, and Kasumi.  Beside the fact that the prices vary drastically as you progress through the range, we have selected these knives because they each offer distinctly different styles.  Ultimately, the best knife for you is not necessarily the most expensive, but the one you are most comfortable wielding.


It is essential to point out that this newsletter does not discuss the most important part of owning a knife – keeping it sharp – since we’ve already covered that topic in Volume 22 - Your Edge (and how to keep it), by Peter Hertzmann (author of Knife Skills Illustrated).

continued below...



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Please order early to avoid disappointment.


Christmas Feast
Gold Medal

and the Awards just keep on coming...

(we must be doing something right)

Congratulations to Jonathan Abrahams, our Director of Operations for winning a CBC Arthur Award for his act of kindness to a fellow Healthy Butcher employee.  Click here to listen to the recorded MP3 of the show.  If we all learned from Jonathan's example, this world would be a better place.


Congratulations to Tara Longo, co-founder and co-owner of The Healthy Butcher for winning the prestigious OCE Green Entrepreneur of the Year award presented at the National Impact Conference.  Click here for more details.


And Congratulation to The Healthy Butcher for being selected Toronto's Best Butcher Shop by Now Magazine.

Not to mention remaining the

#1 Butcher Shop in the City by BlogTO

before Thanksgiving.

perfect for that special Foodie in your life

Our sales for December (CLICK HERE)

are packed full of great food deals

and great gift ideas, like 7 chef knives being on sale!

Visit our Gift Ideas page for inspiration...


Or CLICK HERE for our current class schedule

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all great gifts!

Olive Oils

Calling all OLIVE OIL lovers

We will be hosting an olive oil tasting on February 11, 2010 at our Queen store.  The goal is to gather tasting notes for for our upcoming Live to Eat newsletter on olive oil. 

Registration is free!  But space is limited.

Email to sign yourself up.

The Healthy Butcher's
Le Creuset

Submit one ballot in-store for any purchase over $25.

We will be giving away two 3.3L

Round French Ovens (Red)!
Winning ballots will be drawn during the

first week of January.

Le Creuset French Oven




The Anatomy of a Knife

Materials and The Rockwell Hardness Scale

“There was never a good Knife made of bad Steel.” - Benjamin Franklin

There are essentially three categories of steel used in knife-making: carbon steel, stainless steel, and high carbon stainless steel. Carbon steel is quite often viewed as the best performing steel, as it provides the ability to take on a very sharp edge with little sharpening effort. The down side to carbon steel is that it will discolour and rust (remember the knife that Hannibal Lecter used?). The only carbon steel set of knives we carry are the classic K-Sabatier (Sabatier Aîné & Perrier) made in Thiers, France (pictures above).

Stainless steel or surgical stainless steel has less carbon and more chromium in the alloy. It is very resistant to stains and rust. Plain stainless steel knives are usually inexpensive, which is fitting since they are crap - usually dull when purchased and never get any sharper because the steel is not hard enough to maintain a good edge. Stainless steel is, unfortunately, the material used in the vast majority of knives on the market. We do not offer any knives in surgical stainless steel.

Finally, high carbon stainless steel is a combination of the above two worlds (carbon steel + stainless steel) and is used for the majority of quality knives. High carbon stainless steel has enough carbon to maintain a good edge, but also enough chromium to keep it looking clean and shiny. Victorinox, Grohmann, MAC, GLOBAL, Wusthof, and Kasumi all are made of high carbon stainless steel. Note however, the term “high carbon stainless steel” is a generic term and the quality level of the steel composition varies drastically between brands. For example, the more expensive knives add unique allows like vanadium or molybdenum to enhance performance.

We should also mention one other material that is popular amongst knife aficionados – ceramic. Ceramic knives are made of very hard zirconium oxide (or sometimes zirconium carbide). The blades are so hard that they will maintain a sharp edge for months or years with no maintenance at all. The down side to ceramic knives is that they are more brittle than steel and require expensive sharpening tools.

Most knife marketing brochures will quote the Rockwell hardness of the steel. The Rockwell hardness scale is a scale based on the indentation hardness of a material - the higher the Rockwell number, the harder the steel and the longer it will maintain a sharp edge (and, of course, the harder it will be to sharpen once it dulls). In general, Japanese knives use harder steels than their western counterparts. Mainstream inexpensive knives are rated about 52-54HRC; better quality knives are 54-56HRC; high end knives are anywhere from 56-61HRC and sometimes even higher. Keep in mind that a difference of one on the Rockwell Hardness scale is quite significant. Harder knives are usually more expensive because of their ability to maintain an edge longer and hold a more acute angle; conversely, one disadvantage is that harder steel is prone to chipping or breaking. If you happen to drop an average western-style knife, you’ll probably bend it or dent it; if you happen to drop a Japanese knife the result will likely be a chip off the tip or even an outright break of the blade.

Forged is Better than Stamped;
Full Tang is Better than Partial Tang;
A Good Knife Needs a Bolster

A good kitchen knife need not be forged,
nor does it need a full tang,
nor does it need a bolster.
Forget what anyone else tells you – it is all marketing baloney.

The Making of a Knife - Forged vs. Stamped

Forging refers to the manufacturing process and is differentiated to “stamping”, the more common manufacturing process used today. Stamped knives are stamped out of, or cut from, sheets of metal using a template of predetermined size and shape. The process is usually quite quick and less expensive than forging. Most stamped knives are generally flat and thin, as well as lighter than their forged counterparts.

A forged knife is an example of blacksmith art. A steel blank, a single piece of steel, is heated in the forge. The maker then pounds the steel with a hammer, into the rough shape of a knife. The forged knife is heated again and more hammering follows. Several cycles of heating, cooling and hammering all serve to temper the steel and make the forged knife strong and not easily broken. Finally, the blade is ground from spine to edge, creating a tapered blade. The K-Sabatier and Wusthof Classic Ikons are the only two lines in our collection that are fully forged. For a great set of videos illustrating the forging process, click here to view videos of the K-Sabatier knives being forged in Thiers, France.

As a general rule, forged knives will be higher quality than stamped knives – that’s simply because no manufacturer is going to invest in the time, labour and forging equipment to produce a poor quality forged knife. However, at the high end stamped knives often outperform forged knives – the MAC, GLOBAL and Kasumi knives we carry are prime examples. To this end, it is best we talk about thick vs. thin, and heavy vs. light blades. The fact that stamped knives are usually thinner than forged knives can produce a blade that effortlessly glides through meat, vegetables or fruit. The difference is obvious if you were to cut carrots with a thick forged knife – such as a Sabatier, and a thin stamped knife – such as a MAC. What you will notice is the forged knife wedges the carrot and causes the pieces to break off even before the edge of the blade reaches the cutting board. With a MAC, the blade will effortlessly slice through the carrot without “breaking” them off.

The notion that a heavy knife is better than a light knife is also a misconception. We’re not talking about the weight balance here, just the sheer weight of the knife. Ultimately you should use what you feel comfortable using. There’s a reason most Western chefs have moved toward lighter Japanese knives – using a heavy knife all day every day will often lead to repetitive strain injuries. Japanese knives are much easier to use for extended periods of time. For the home chef, again, the important thing is that you feel comfortable with the knife. Many people enjoy the feel of a heavy forged knife, others don’t – it’s all personal preference.

Also keep into consideration there are big differences between one companies stamping process and anothers. Take GLOBAL for example; after stamping the stainless steel blank into the shape of the blade, the blade is heat-treated at 1000 degrees centigrade, before rapid cooling at minus 80 degrees ("sub-zero treatment" increases the hardness of the blade), then tempered once again passing through another heat treatment, which takes approximately four hours. The whole process yields a different and superior result than the stamping of less expensive knives, like Victorinox.

Last but not least, the process used to manufacture our most expensive knives – the Kasumi – is unique and does not fall under the forged or stamped processes described above. Kasumi knives are made using a traditional Japanese sword making technique that involves the repeated folding and forging of 32 layers of steel. Only the middle layer acts as the cutting edge, and it is made using V-Gold No. 10 stainless steel. V-Gold No. 10 is a high carbon stainless steel with cobalt, manganese, molybdenum and vanadium for added durability and ease of sharpening. The layers on both sides of the V-Gold No. 10 core are made by repeatedly folding together two different types of stainless steel and forge welding them by hand until you have sixteen exceedingly thin alternating layers. These sixteen layers are then forge welded to both sides of the V-Gold No. 10 core. We refer to this type of steel as Damascus, and the wavy watermark pattern on the blade shows the separate layers of steel (not all layers are visible).

The Knife Edge - Grind Types and Angles

The knife edge, or more specifically, the grind of the blade is an important design consideration – of course, it is the edge that cuts. There are six typical grinds:

Knife Edge
1. Hollow Ground - a knife blade which has been ground to create a characteristic concave, beveled edge along the cutting edge of the knife. The GLOBAL knives use hollow ground edges. Since the edge is so thin, it is extremely sharp. On the downside, the edge is more brittle and dulls easier than a flat ground edge.

2. Flat ground - Sometimes called “straight edge” or “V-Edge”, the blade tapers all the way from the spine to the edge from both sides.

3. Sabre ground - Similar to a flat ground blade except that the bevel starts at about the middle of the blade, not the spine. It produces a more lasting edge at the expense of some cutting ability and is typical of kitchen knives.

4. Chisel ground - The edge is ground only on one side, while the other side is flat. Chisel ground edges are primarily found on Japanese sushi (or sashimi) knives, and are extremely thin and sharp. Knives that are chisel ground come in left and right-handed varieties, depending upon which side is ground.

5. Double bevel or compound bevel – Many knives utilize a secondary bevel at a more acute angle added to a flat ground or saber ground edge. This back bevel keeps the section of blade behind the edge thinner which improves cutting ability. Being less acute at the edge than a single bevel, sharpness is sacrificed for resilience: such a grind is much less prone to chipping or rolling than a single bevel blade.

6. Convex ground - Rather than tapering with straight lines to the edge, the taper is curved, though in the opposite manner to a hollow grind. Such a shape keeps a lot of metal behind the edge making for a stronger edge while still allowing a good degree of sharpness. This grind can be used on axes and is sometimes called an axe grind. As the angle of the taper is constantly changing this type of grind requires some degree of skill to reproduce on a flat stone. Convex blades usually need to be made from thicker stock than other blades.


We should also mention a term that is quite common today - “Granton edge”. The Granton edge is named after the Granton knife company in Sheffield, England who invented it in 1928. A series of divots are ground into the blade, which alternate on each side of the blade. The divots thin the cutting edge while maintaining rigidity and also allows for air pockets to reduce friction and sticking when slicing fruits or vegetables. When Granton's patent expired, other knife makers began applying the divots on their slicers. The effectiveness of the divots will depend on their design; many manufacturers apply divots that are too small as to be effective in reducing the sticking – they should be oval and at least as long as the circumference of what you are cutting.

Knife Edge Angle

If kitchen knives are judged by their cutting ability, then Japanese knives take the upper hand. The reason is because of the edge angle typically used (see the sharpening angles in the chart above). Most Western knives are sharpened to 40-50 degrees included angled (that is, 20-25 degrees edge angle on each side). Conversely, Japanese knives are sharpened to much more acute angles, 20-30 degrees included angle (that is, 10-15 edge angle degrees on each side). Therefore, Japanese knives cut a lot better. Of course, we’d take a sharp Western knife over a dull Japanese knife… but the point is, all things being equal, Japanese knives are a beauty to use.

A natural question that comes up is: Why aren’t the other knives sharpened to more acute angles? Good question. Well, we can say from personal experience that we have achieved good results sharpening Victorinox knives to 30 degrees included angle (15 degrees per side). The main difference is that Japanese knives generally utilize harder steel, and therefore will maintain an acute angle for longer. So, it’s not that a cheap knife can’t be sharpened to Japanese style acute angles, it’s that if the steel is not hard enough, you will need to sharpen very frequently to maintain that edge. Many Western-style knife manufacturers have moved to more acute angles – the Wusthof Classic Ikons are a perfect example. Wusthof moved to a more acute angle with this line of knives (18 degrees for the Chef knife, 12 degrees for the Santoku) than they typically have in the past; but at the same time, they introduced a steel with Rockwell hardness 58 which is in line with Japanese knives.

Lastly, it is important to use the right or sharpener or sharpening technique to match the knife edge. In the side-by-side comparison chart of the knives we carry, we recommended a specific sharpener for each line of knives.

Blade Shapes for Chefs Knives

The shape of a chefs knife will vary considerably from region to region, and you should be aware of the subtle differences because one style might suit your techniques better than others. “German” style knives tend to have a more curved section at the front of the blade, which is good for chopping up-and-down in a rocking motion. “French” style knives are straighter, and more triangular, which is good for a slicing type of motion where the knife is drawn straight back toward you.

Chef Knife Shapes “Japanese” style chef knives usually refer to the Santoku style. In English, Santoku translates to “three virtues” – referring to chopping, mincing, and dicing. A Santoku has a stubbier tip, is typically shorter than German or French style, and yields a straighter edge.

Santoku knives have taken the world by storm and are definitely popular; that said, we wouldn’t replace a classic 8” chef knife (German or French depending on personal preference) with a Santoku but instead add it to our collection – they are great for some tasks, and not as effective at other tasks.

Of course, Japanese-style knives are made by German companies (see the Wusthof Classic Ikon Santoku – a wonderfully crafted knife), and Japanese manufacturers make a wide assortment of Western-style knives.

Full Tang vs. Partial Tang

The tang is the part of the knife blade that extends into the handle. It is sandwiched between the outside layers of the handle, and generally contains holes where it is riveted to the handle. Many salespeople will tell you that a full tang is needed for strength – baloney! Try telling that to the samurai warriors using Katana swords to cut through armor and bones – assembled with only a partial tang. Sometimes the full tang adds balance to the back of the knife that is preferred by some people; but that’s merely a personal preference. The Victorinox Fibrox knives are only ¾-tang and we dare anyone to try to break these knives.

The Handle

We’re going to go out on a limb here and say that the handle is the most important part of the knife. If you don’t feel comfortable holding a knife than what’s the point of owning it? (even if the blade is the most expensive and “best” available) Handle sizes range from large to small, and shapes range from ergonomic to plain round – it is essential you hold a knife and get a “feel” for it before buying it. For example, Victorinox knives have quite large handles; many women find the handles a little too large and clunky in comparison to the smaller shaped GLOBAL handles. Conversely, larger-handed men often find the GLOBAL’s a little too small. Many materials are used from the classic wood (Rosewood being the most popular), plastic, resin-impregnated wood, and many more. If well maintained, all materials are fine. If you plan on throwing your knife into the dishwasher (which you should never do anyway), then stay away from wood handles for obvious reasons.


The bolster is a thick piece of metal that is at the end of the blade, just before the handle. Fully forged knives generally have bolsters that run the height of the blade (See the K-Sabatier). Stamped Knives often have a bolster forged to the knife (as in the piece of metal is forged onto the stamped knife) to add weight – we call that a collar bolster.

Knife Bolsters Comparison

Having a full bolster provides a place for fingers to be placed for comfort (when using a pinch grip) and also provides protection from the blade. The disadvantage is that sharpening the knife edge near the bolster is difficult. The Wusthof’s Classic Ikon design is brilliant, the bolster is there for comfort, but does not extend down to the blade so sharpening is easy. Again – having a bolster or not having one is personal preference and does not in any way indicate poor or good quality.

Choosing The Right Knife For The Job

Just as with cookware, we would encourage people to avoid purchasing sets and instead purchase individual knives to suit personal needs. You don’t need many knives, so you’re better off buying a select few better knives individually rather than shelling out money for unnecessary sets.

The Essentials

Victorinox Fibrox Chef Knife

Chef’s Knife – Also called the cook’s knife, it is the most versatile and most used knife in your collection. Most common size is 8”, but lengths range from 6” to 12”. If you have to buy one knife, buy a good chef’s knife and 90% of tasks can be accomplished – from cutting, slicing, chopping and mincing. Of course, a Santoku chef knife is also an all-purpose chef knife – the various styles of chef’s knives are, in essence, interchangeable.

Bread Knife

Bread Knife – Serrated edge to cut through, you guessed it – bread. The blade may be straight or slightly curved. The serration also makes this knife appropriate for hard rind fruit.

Utility Knife

Utility Knife – A smaller version of the Chef’s Knife, usually 5-to-6 inches, and is your go-to knife to cut fruit or almost anything when it seems pulling out a Chef’s knife is overkill.

Paring Knife

Paring Knife – The most common is a 3.5” spear pointed knife, and is used for peeling, slicing small produce, removing stems, and other small precision cutting tasks. A Bird’s Peak paring knife (also called a tourney knife) has an arching blade ideal for both peeling fruits and garnishing tasks.

Specialty Knives

Carving Knife

Carving Knife – A thinner blade than a typical Chef Knife and usually slightly flexible. The carving knife works well to slice hot meats such as roast beef or turkey.

Slicing Knife

Slicing Knife – Used to carve roasts, turkey or ham in serving portions. The long, thin blade promotes maximum contact between the food and blade, for producing very thing slices.

Boning Knife

Boning Knife – Used to separate meat from the bone with a blade specifically designed to pierce flesh and closely follow the bone.

Fillet Knife

Fillet Knife – A thin, flexible blade typically 6-11 inches long used for filleting fish.


Cimiter – Used mainly by butchers; Ideal for cutting through large muscles.


Cleaver – Heavy and big, a cleaver is used to cut and chop through thick meat and bone.

Steak Knife 

Steak Knife – duh!

Clam Knife 

Clam Knife – Slightly sharp edge and rounded tip used to pry open clams.

Oyster Knife 

Oyster Knife – Short, blunt blade used to pry open oyster shells.

Alright already – which knife should I buy?

Many questions must be answered when looking for the knife that is perfect for you. Are you a slicer or a chopper? German knives tend to be curved and are better suited to those who plant the tip of their chefs knife on the board and rock the handle up and down to chop. The French Sabatier shape is much straighter and better used by drawing the blade toward you in a slicing motion. Japanese santoku shapes are rapidly becoming one of the more popular shapes on the market.

How much maintenance are you willing to put in for your knives? Will you hone your knife with each use? Will you handwash? Do you feel that the appearance is a primary factor? Carbon steel blades will discolor with use and require frequent sharpening, but they will reward those with the patience to care for them properly and care about performance rather than appearance.

If you haven’t already realized this, than sorry to disappoint you - there is no “the best kitchen knife ever made”. Nor is there one “do it all knife that will accomplish all cutting equally well” or magic steel or magic design.

The Healthy Butcher's Knife Collection

For a complete pricelist of all the knives we offer, click here.

For a side-by-side comparison chart of the knives we offer, click here.

To learn about the brands we carry, click here.


To access past issues of live to eat, click here.




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