"At the table of a gentleman living in the Chausee d'Antin was
served up an Arles sausage of enormous size. "Will you accept a slice?" the host
asked a lady who was sitting next to him; "you see it has come from the right
factory." --- "It is really very large," said the lady, casting on it a roguish
glance; "What a pity it is unlike anything.""
Jean-Anthelme Brillat-Savarin (1755-1826) The
Physiology of Taste (1825)
From our best selling
and original Amsterdam Beer Sausage with Jalapenős and Cheddar and One and
Only Toronto Potato Sausage, to the classic Spicy Italian,
Chorizo, and Merguez sausages, to the wildly flavourful Elk
Sausage with Wild Blueberries and Bison Sausage with Pistachio Nuts and
Gin, The Healthy Butcher has experienced fast and widespread recognition for
its sausage-making since opening. We recently featured on Breakfast Television (August 10, 2005)
and showed the Canadian viewers how we make the
freshest of fresh sausages at our store... so, we though it fitting to pay tribute to
the mighty sausage in Volume 5 of Live to Eat.
Sausages can be considered an almost perfect food. International in nature, they
combine wonderful herbs and spices, flavourful meats, vegetables, fruits, and
grains in a natural casing. They can be poached, boiled, steamed, baked, fried,
roasted, or grilled. They may be used as an hors d’oeuvre, in a sandwich, or as
an ingredient in other dishes, such as stews and casseroles. In their charmingly
odd package, the ingredients meld when cooked, basted in their own savory
juices. Then, when eaten, the contained goodness bursts upon your palate in the
most festive way possible. Is it any wonder that many cultures through the
centuries have created innumerable local festivals to celebrate, honour, and
consume this incredible food?
Sausages have been with us for a very long time. Before refrigeration, the
process of drying (or curing) meat, both in slabs and in sausage form, by using
salt as a drying agent was the only way to preserve meat. Today’s saavy cooks are rediscovering
the craft of sausage-making as an important way to sample the best of the
world’s culinary heritage. There are three main types of sausages - fresh,
cured, and smoked. And the art of sausage-making falls within the broader
term Charcuterie - which includes Cured Meats, Terrines, and Pâtés.
In this newsletter, we will only provide an introduction to the topic of
sausages and leave the other areas of Charcuterie to a future issue.
TYPES OF SAUSAGE
Fresh Sausage - Fresh sausage refers simply to combined meat and spices
ready for immediate consumption. These sausages can be broken up and used as
an ingredient in other dishes such as sauces or they can be left in their casings and
refrigerated for up to two-to-three days or frozen for three months before
Cured Sausage - Cured sausages, such as salami and pepperoni, are firmer
and keep much longer than fresh sausages. Curing meats retard spoilage by
removing most of the moisture using salt. Unfortunately, curing
agents – nitrates and nitrites – have been linked to cancer and other diseases.
This is the reason The Healthy Butcher has yet to enter this culinary area –
never fear, however, we are diligently working to create nitrate- and nitrite-free cured meats.
Smoked Sausage - Sausages can be either cold- or hot-smoked. Cold-smoking
involves low heat for a long time and does not result in a cooked sausage, but
rather imparts the smokey flavour. Hot-smoking involves higher heat for a
shorter time and results in a fully cooked sausage.
Natural casings, primarily made of animal intestines, are the ultimate example
of waste-not-want-not. These casings are made of a natural protein called
collagen. They are strong, almost transparent, and semi-permeable – which allows
flavours such as smoke to penetrate and at the same time protects and
concentrates the flavours within. At The Healthy Butcher, we primarily use
casings from pigs. However, we make a wide variety of pork-free sausages, in
which case we use casings from sheep or artificially made collagen casings.
MEAT, FAT, AND SPICES
One of the greatest
advantages of buying sausages from a local butcher (meaning the “The Healthy
Butcher”) is the control over the ingredients you eat. Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, in The River Cottage Meat Book
(an absolute must-read cookbook), had this to say
about fresh sausages:
“Everyone loves sausages, and you can buy them just about everywhere that has a
chill cabinet … They run the whole gamut of meat quality, from sublime to
unmentionable. The very worst of them – which is, of course, most of them – are
made from mechanically recovered pork slurry, blasted off the carcasses of
factory-farmed pigs with high-pressure hoses, then hovered up off the abattoir
floor. After being sieved and ground to an even paste, stabilized with the
addition of chemical preservatives, this is mixed with cheap cereal binders (as
much as 50 per cent of the final sausage), artificial flavourings and a few more
preservatives to boot. It’s finally squeezed into artificial casings that are
crimped into sausages at the rate of several thousand an hour. Refrigerated,
these have a shelf life of over a month.
On the other hand, the very best sausages
are made by conscientious butchers, who use lean shoulder and fat belly, along
with fresh pork trimmings from their own cutting room, … and their secret blend
of herbs and spices. They won’t keep for more than a week, but with a loyal
clientele to support them, they won’t need to.”
The reputation of the
meat processing industry has reached a sad state of affairs. It’s no wonder the
quote “you don’t want to know what’s in your sausage” has become so well known.
The phrase “meat and meat by-products” gives us a chill every time we read it on
a package at the large grocery stores. At The Healthy Butcher and I’m sure at any quality butcher shop, only the freshest and best organic
meat, herbs and ingredients are used. The key to gourmet is in the details. We
grind whole black peppercorns immediately before mixing the pepper into the
sausage mix. Fresh parsley, thyme, and mint are used – not the dried variety.
And no nitrates, nitrites, artificial preservatives, artificial flavouring,
artificial binders, or pre-mixed seasoning packages are ever used in our
The fat content of our sausages is the most common topic of questions from our
customers. Our sausages vary from very lean (about 15%) to traditional amounts
(about 25-30%). It’s common for commercially made sausages to contain up to 50%
fat. For those of you who may be inspired by this newsletter to enter the world
of home sausage-making, you may be tempted to reduce the fat content to levels
that produce dry sausages. Fat gives flavour and juiciness. Although 30% may seem like a
lot, don’t forget that a good deal of that fat will be lost during cooking –
leaving a nice juicy sausage. As our Head Butcher, Sebastian Cortez, frequently
says to customers in search of the leanest meat... “Meat without fat, is like life without love.”
The process of making sausages is quite simple…
1. Grinding the meat – Meat is typically ground through plates with
holes of 1/8 inch, 1/4 inch, or 3/8 inch. How the meat is ground will play a
huge role in the consistency of the final product. Coarsely ground meat, like in
Italian or Chorizo sausages, will be juicier and have a texture similar to the
unground pork or beef used in the recipe. Finely ground meat, like in most breakfast
sausages or hot dogs, will create a very consistent and almost pasty-like
2. Mix the
meat – Here’s where a vivid imagination can create the ultimate gourmet
experience. For a new sausage-maker, start with a traditional recipe as a base,
and then vary it as you wish – always using fresh herbs, spices, vegetables, and
maybe even fruits. Kneading a small batch by hand is not difficult, but
make sure that the mixture is thoroughly mixed; you do not want a
pocket of salt or black pepper to ruin your eating experience.
Stuffing the casing – There are an infinite number of designs and sizes of
sausage stuffers… home manual stuffers are very inexpensive. Fill the stuffer
with the sausage mixture and feed it through the casing. With a skewer, prick
any air bubbles that appear as the casing fills up. Do not fill the casings too
full, or the sausage might burst during linking or cooking.
– Depending on the type of sausage, links should be 5 to 8 inches in length.
Starting from the knotted end of the casing on your right, measure the desired
length and pinch the casing between your thumbs and forefingers. Twirl the
sausage clockwise. Now move down the casing the same length, pinch, and twirl it
counter-clockwise. After a short time, you’ll be linking like a pro.
The key to juicy
sausages is patience. Whether you’re pan-frying, grilling or poaching, make sure
to cook the sausages slowly. Excessive heat will burn the outside before the
insides have cooked as well lose a significant amount of the tasty juices. To grill, preheat your BBQ and then reduce to medium-heat
once you’ve placed the sausages on the grill. Flip minimally – twice is ideal.
To poach, bring a sufficient amount of lightly salted water to a temperature of
180°-200°F – the water should not be boiling. Put the sausages in the hot water
and poach them over very low heat – they will take 15-30 minutes. To panfry, put
the sausage in a dry heavy skillet over medium heat, turning them until they are
browned on all sides.
In the coming months,
we plan on holding a sausage-making class at The Healthy Butcher for those chefs
and chef-wanna-be’s alike who wish to explore this area of charcuterie. If you
are interested in attending such an event, please send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org,
and we will let you know the details when the plans have been made.
To access past issues of live to eat?
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